Darkness in the northen
coming on. So it starts recouping materials from the leaves before they drop oﬀ." Evergreens protect
their needle‐like foliage from freezing with waxy coatings and natural "antifreezes." But broadleaf plants,
like sugar maples, birches, and sumacs, have no such protections. As a result, they shed their leaves. But
before they do, the plants ﬁrst try to salvage important nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.